The Jamestown was a large sailing ship which was abandoned and ran aground near the Icelandic village of Hafnir on 26 June 1881.
The keel was laid in Richmond, Maine. She was registered there in 1880 after having been first floated the year before.
The Jamestown left Maine on the 10th of November, 1880, bound for Liverpool carrying a cargo of high-quality lumber. No sooner was the ship out of port than four of the crew jumped ship, and Captain William E. Whitmore had to find replacements. Then a windlass broke and the ship had to stop in Eastport, Maine for repairs. Finally underway across the Atlantic in early December, the ship encountered heavy seas and the rudder was torn away. After being battered by the seas for several weeks, the captain and crew was rescued by the Anchor Line steamer Ethiopia and left the Jamestown to drift at 43°06′N22°00′W / 43.10°N 22°W / 43.10; -22. In total, 27 people were rescued, including the captain's wife and child.
The crew arrived safely in Glasgow on 16 February 1881, but their ship didn't reach its final resting place for another four months. On the morning of 26 June, residents of Hafnir woke to find that the enormous vessel had run aground the night before, although at that time of the year, it never gets fully dark at that latitude. The cargo of timber was particularly valuable in Iceland, which suffered almost complete deforestation in the several hundred years following the initial Viking settlement in 874. As such, the cargo was unloaded and one third of it was reserved for those who had participated in the salvage operation. The rest was auctioned off, bringing in about DKK 10,000. This is equivalent to USD 62,000 in 2012 dollars.
Conditioned for racing by future U. S. Racing Hall of Fame trainer Jack Joyner, Jamestown raced against very strong opponents in 1930 and 1931 when he was part of what the Chicago Tribune newspaper called the "big four" in racing, which included Twenty Grand, Mate, and Equipoise.
As a two-year-old, Jamestown won five important races, capping off 1930 with a win in the most prestigious race in the United States for two-year-olds, the Belmont Futurity Stakes. At a time when there was no official voting for annual racing Champions, Jamestown was recognized in the industry as the American Champion Two-Year-Old Colt. Although Jamestown twice defeated Equipoise, he shared the 1930 retrospective honors as listed by The Blood-Horse magazine and Thoroughbred Heritage.
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete" Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health. Health is that balanced condition of the living organism in which the integral, harmonious performance of the vital functions tends to the preservation of the organism and the normal development of the individual.
Health is an attribute assigned to entities within a role-playing or video game that indicates its state in combat. Health is usually measured in health points or hit points, often shortened as HP. When the HP of a player character reaches zero, the player may lose a life or their character might become incapacitated or die. When the HP of an enemy reaches zero, the player might be rewarded in some way.
Any entity within a game could have a health value, including the player character, non-player characters and objects. Indestructible entities have no diminishable health value.
Health might be displayed as a numeric value, such as "50/100". Here, the first number indicates the current amount of HP an entity has and the second number indicates the entity's maximum HP. In video games, health can also be displayed graphically, such as with a bar that empties itself when an entity loses health (a health bar), icons that are "chipped away" from, or in more novel ways.
Dungeons & Dragons co-creator Dave Arneson described the origin of hit points in a 2002 interview. When Arneson was adapting the medievalwargameChainmail (1971) to a fantasy setting, a process that with Gary Gygax would lead to Dungeons & Dragons, he saw that the emphasis of the gameplay was moving from large armies to small groups of heroes and eventually to the identification of one player and one character that is essential to role-playing as it was originally conceived. Players became attached to their heroes and did not want them to die every time they lost a die roll. Players were thus given multiple hit points which were incrementally decreased as they took damage. Arneson took the concept, along with armor class, from a set of a naval American Civil War game's rules.
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